Main research results



In the field of basic research:

- The method of local muon density spectra (LMDS) which allows to estimate parameters of the primary cosmic ray energy spectrum at ultrahigh energies (above 1015 eV) with a relatively small setup (about 70 m2) was developed.

- The spectra of the local muon density in the range of zenith angles 30° - 80° which corresponds to the primary cosmic rays energy range 1015 - 5×1018 eV were measured.

- It was shown that there is an excess of muon bundles in comparison with the expected value in the energy region near 1018 eV even under the assumption of pure iron PCR composition and interaction model with the maximum number of muons.

- The knee of the cosmic ray energy spectrum at energy 1017 eV (the second "knee") was discovered.

- The intensity of the muon flux in a wide range of zenith angles (20° - 89°) and threshold energies (1.5 - 7.2 GeV), as well as the albedo muon flux in the range of zenith angles 90° - 94° were measured for the first time.

- The technique for reconstruction of cascade curves of showers generated by muons in the Cherenkov water detector was developed, and the energy spectrum of cosmic ray muons in the energy range from 3 GeV to 3 TeV was measured.


In the field of applied research:

- A method for obtaining muon snapshots (muongraphies) of various processes in the atmosphere, magnetosphere, and the heliosphere using muon hodoscope was developed (patent of Russian Federation No. 2406919).

- The fundamentals of the technique of muon diagnostics of various processes in the atmosphere were developed (patent of Russian Federation No. 110531, 112778).

- The method of study of different heliospheric processes using muon diagnostics was developed (patent of Russian Federation No. 2446495).

- For the first time, integral, energy and angular characteristics of Forbush decreases were investigated using a single setup and the possibility of using of various parameters of Forbush decreases for early detection of high-energy phenomena in the heliosphere caused by solar processes was substantiated.

- The unique experimental data on changes in various characteristics of CR muon flux at the decrease of the 23rd, at the minimum between the 23rd and 24th, and the maximum of the 24th cycle of solar activity were obtained.

- For the first time, the temperature effect for muon bundles was measured, and it was shown that its value twice exceeds the corresponding value for single muons.